#1/2016 - Journal of Urban and Landscape Planning

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May, 2016 (CD-ROM)=ISSN 2501-5591 ISSN-L 2501-5591
MOȚCANU–DUMITRESCU Mihai – Alexandru Opportunities  for Urban Regeneration Operations and Re-evaluation of Existing Framework, Bucharest Industrial Areas Specific Issues 
The expansion of the city, in many cases, has resulted in increased costs for installations and technical equipment and the amenities for housing, movement, health, education, leisure, etc. Spatial expansion of cities, with advantages and disadvantages, occurs in parallel with the growth of population and its movement to the great metropolitan areas situated at the periphery. As a result, urban density decreases within the city, but problems arise in housing quality, urban traffic management, waste management, increasing pollution sources, etc. Problems and challenges of interventions on the urban framework are linked to a large extent with the issue of limiting the operations, both in terms of goals and the implementation stages, as well in terms of space, because often the approach of solving certain dysfunctions in an area implies significant changes in the surrounding areas. This article presents the opportunities regarding urban regeneration operations, the need to approach urban regeneration being revealed after a brief analysis of the types of intervention on the urban framework of former industrial areas in Bucharest City and their corresponding projects, analysis carried out in terms of how these projects meet the criteria of frequently used urban interventions such as the renovation, reconstruction, modernization, revitalization and restructuring. Thus, we can see that in terms of industrial space utilization is carried out a transition to a mixed-used area which manifests itself by building commercial functions, services and housing, this operation being realized in a spontaneous manner, rather than being a planned and integrated process. Moreover, urban regeneration is a strategic activity that involves short-term measures to resolve the immediate difficulties and long-term approach to avoid future problems.
Keywords: Urban renewal, reconstruction, urban modernization, urban revitalization, urban restructuring, urban regeneration, industrial areas.

STADLER Reinhold Lehel  The Decline of Virtual Reality and the Rise of Augmented Reality - A digital Reshape of Public Spaces
The development of virtual reality over the last century supported a slow shift of activities from the public space towards the private one. However, virtual reality offers incomplete sensations and less face to face social interactions, which reinforces the need for public spaces. Augmented reality is an emerging technology able to better connect the two realms: the virtual and physical reality. This article aims to briefly explain the shift from virtual reality towards augmented reality and the effects of this process on the public space. The focus will be on the ways that augmented reality can improve the attractiveness of contemporary public spaces by strengthening its essential features, such as: access to information, playfulness and adaptability. In order to be competitive and attractive public spaces have to evolve and adapt to the new trends, of which ICT is one of the most significant.
Keywords: Public space, augmented reality, virtual reality, digital spaces, social interaction.

STAN Angelica Reconfiguring the Macro Urban Landscape of Bucharest Based on its Native Traits 
The Bucharest’s urban landscape is hardly to qualify and often is considered a contradictory, multi-layered, diverse and uneven landscape. Looking back on the history of its formation, Bucharest’s landscape has been cristalyzed over centuries by assimilating few major features. One of them is the "water heritage" on which this article focuses, presenting a synthetic perspective of Bucharest, as a landscape between two founding rivers – Dâmbovița and Colentina, acting as native traits for this landscape.
The paper shows Bucharest’s scenic urban and architectural space, in the mirror of the water landscape, as a potential of the city re-configuration.Starting from this, the future development of Bucharest is discussed in terms of a landscape becoming, embracing the historical evolution of urban form, imprinted by the main spatial traces.
The study uses comparative and analytical investigation of the essential structure of the city, and the case-study method, applied to Bucharest. The tools are observational and interpretive, aiming to put in connection spatial analyzes with those related to urban history.
Keywords: landscape, rivers, heritage, Dâmbovița, Colentina, projects

SÂRBU Cătălin N., MITREA Andrei & CHIȘ Alin D. The Question of the Danube and the Planning Myopia 
Abstract. This is our first paper in a sequence of studies dedicated to the Danube. Hence, the following text should be considered as an introduction to a more ambitious research project in the field of spatial planning. In essence, the article forms a critical synthesis of the various arguments that have been put forward over the past hundred years in support of the Danube’s significance as a vector for development. This exercise in synthesis is both a necessary and an instructing prerequisite for the entire research project: In due course, we wish to formulate a basic set of hypotheses concerning Romania’s development in connection to the Danube. If proven feasible, we wish to subsequently test them in as much detail as possible.
The rationale behind this review paper is a reasoned examination of the functions the Danube can still fulfil from a Romanian spatial planning perspective.
Keywords: Danube, Romanian Studies of the Danube, Romanian Planning Myopia

Ir. KIVIET, Edgar M.A. Why People are the Most Important Factor in Urban Regeneration
Opinion article about the factors that trigger urban regeneration and the factors that make them a success or a failure. These questions are especially pertinent in Eastern Europe, where the need for a renewed economic boost in cities is even greater than in Central Europe.
One of the most important factors of success is recognising the complexity of these developments. And much like a biological ecosystem, a city’s urban tissue is enormously complex, with many stakeholders, existing infrastructures, site contamination, public and private collaborations, planning procedures and financing formulas. The “human factor” being the most important one.
When redeveloping widely used civic spaces, deeply embedded in the hearts and minds of people and communities, it is imperative that urban design professionals get this right. Identifying the most important factor is the easy bit. It’s making it work that’s the challenge.
Keywords: Urban planning, master planning, urban regeneration, transformation, community, people.

BOSTENARU DAN, Maria & GOCIMAN, Cristina Olga Map of Impact of Natural Hazards 
This paper investigates the mapping of the impact of natural hazards as included in several databases reviewed or created by the author. These are:
- The database of the contribution of the session series “Natural hazards’ impact on urban areas and infrastructure”, convened and co-convened by the first author over 15 years at the European Geosciences General Assembly.
- A database created from reviews of students supervised by the authors in frame of the course “Protection of settlements against risks” at the home university.
- A collection of historical photographs from the 19th century on different natural and man-made hazards from the Canadian Centre for Architecture, the archive review of which has been performed by the first author and which will be subject of a book to be published about the time of the conference.
-Two reviewed collections, one from the exhibition and book on “Images of disasters” (German research) and one on the book “Illustrated history of natural disasters” which include major disasters from the beginning of the mankind.
In frame of the paper maps of the spread of data will be presented, created using both arcGIS online and GoogleMaps (see https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=zpbbz3WgVMBs.k-3vhGj--l1M&usp=sharing), comparing the source and the type of hazard, to see eventual overlappings between the databases.
Keywords: map, natural hazard, database, impact, archive, historical

COCHECI Radu-Matei  Planning in Restrictive Environments - A Comparative Analysis of Planning Systems in EU Countries 
The discontinuities in the geographical space determine one of the main functions of territorial planning – the realization of a balanced distribution of economic development between regions. In this context, the restrictive environment concept can have an increased applicability in planning processes, as it explains the constraints in economic development that often lead to these regional imbalances.
The aim of this study is to identify, through the analysis of planning systems in two EU countries (France and Italy), the planning instruments used in the case of restrictive environments and compare them to the ones existing in Romania. The comparison criteria used were the administrative structure, the system of plans, the inclusion of elements related to restrictive environments in these plans and other specific tools for such territories.
While the Romanian planning system shares some similarities with the other analysed planning systems, the insufficiently developed mechanisms, the superposition between different types of plans and sectoral policies and the changing institutional structure represent a problem in the management of restrictive environments
Keywords: Planning instruments, environmental planning, spatial planning, planning law.

PETRIŞOR Alexandru-Ionuţ  Brief Critical Analysis of Concepts Used for Assessing the Market Value to Ecosystem Goods and Services in Urban and Spatial Plans
Estimating the market value of natural capital is largely influenced by the perception of the environment. Anthropocentric approaches, particularly the sectoral ones still used today by non-specialists tributary to conceptions lasting since the 1950’s, made economists see the environment as an endless resource for human development. This reasoning – “only money matters” – led to the ecological crisis. Its first solution, the ‘zero growth’ concept of the Club of Rome, based on the same model, proved unviable. Later the sustainability concept embedded the progress of systemic ecology, including the shift of its object to coupled socio-ecological complexes. Paradigm changes modified the interpretation of ecological balance, and implicitly the perception of the relation between socio-economic development and biodiversity conservation, analyzed finally through the carrying capacity. The dynamic of this theoretical framework changed the methods used to find the market value of environmental goods and services, moving from the money approach (economic) to the carbon footprint (environmental) and then to ecosystem services provided by the ecological infrastructure (holistic). Sustainability must rely on seeing the environment as hierarchy of coupled socio-ecological systems, and, in practice, impact assessment must look at the effects of human actions on structural integrity and level of ecosystem services provided by the ecological infrastructure.
Keywords: holistic approach, carrying capacity, ecological infrastructure, ecosystem services

MIHĂILA Marina  Book Review - Digital representation of the Impact of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake
Following an interesting and contemporary approach, the book Digital representation of the impact of the 1755 Lisbon Earth quake presents in a creative and interactive thinking, based on several models of 3d city, directions and meanings of the seismic impact on the cities. A comparative model of investigation based on geometrical visualization and its semantic enrichment with non-geometric information is developed within the presented research, and the results are highlighted on Lisbon landscape application referring to 1755 earthquake.
The book addresses to landscape and architecture professionals, academics and students, but also to everybody who might be interested in new investigation methods and nuanced results on landscape disasters research, likewise possible evidence and marks within the city patterns.
Keywords: Urban planning, landscape, research projects, book review, Maria Bostenaru Dan, Thomas Panagopoulos, EUIM, UAUIM

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