December, 2020 ISSN-L 2501-5591 (Online)=ISSN 2559-4141
MIHAI-COMAN, Horia - “Identity” in the approach of architecture and urbanism during the socialist-communist period in Romania
This article approaches the topic of “identity” with regards to the production of architecture and urbanism in Romania during what is often labelled as the “communist” or “socialist” era (circa 1944-1989). As the theme and concept of “identity” (using this specific word) seems to be gaining considerable exposure and attention in recent years as it’s being approached by various researchers and professionals of different backgrounds, this article tries to conjugate the issue of identity in the field of architecture and urbanism, focusing on the time interval mentioned above (namely a period that can be labelled as the “socialist-communist” period). In this respect, the article tries to outline some of the most important identitary coordinates of the architecture and urbanism that was practiced in the socialist-communist period in Romania.
In doing so, the article will visit some aspects of architectural identity, urban identity and cultural identity in regard to buildings and cities in the study period. The focus will especially be on buildings, groups of buildings and urban areas (such as city centres and central urban ensembles) that have a somewhat powerful representative function and/or underlying valence of representativeness – being representative for a city, for a community, for an ideology, for an aesthetic orientation, etc.. Here, the issue of “identity” will especially be investigated and presented through its role as premise or justification for an urban project or for the design of a representative building. And in trying to understand the identitary aspects and implications of various projects and realisations, the issue of “identity” will primarily be presented as it was approached by some of the most relevant stakeholders in the issue, such as the architects and the politicians. The role and influence of politics, politicians and ideology are particularly specific for the study period, being considerably relevant for the topic of “identity”.
Keywords: identitary concerns, representativeness, specificity in architecture, Nicolae Porumbescu, traditional architecture, historical centre, preservation, value, systematisation, demolition, politics.
BOSTENARU DAN, Maria - The English Gardens of the Károlyi Counts Palaces – first results
This paper presents first results of the DOMUS scholarships projects on the Károlyi palace gardens in Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. The paper presents the motivation and the goal of the projects to analyze this cross-country heritage with its history up to preservation today. The gardens are presented in the wider historic context which includes English gardens in Hungary but also historic gardens which have to do with the history of Carei, from where the properties of the Károlyi counts spread over the Kingdom of Hungary after the century of Swabian immigration. The research questions and methods are presented, followed by first results. The methods were adapted for performing this study during the pandemic, when only few of the gardens were visited in the past, using comparative landscape architecture analysis. The results regard building a webpage which presents this approach, as well as an inventory of the gardens using existing databases. This inventory extends the proposal of the gardens to be studied from the project based on the main palace of the counts. Nevertheless, the history is shown for a few gardens which were also visited or exchange was done about them and which mainly belong to the main gardens of Károlyi palaces. Some of these gardens underwent several restorations connected with changes in the configuration throughout history. Restoration intervention used the European opportunities set by this cross-country heritage for funding. However, most gardens are English gardens, and thus they related to the Hungarian context set at the beginning. Although the inventory is larger than the main gardens set as target in the project and reported in earlier works, the other gardens are sometimes grouped in clusters around these. From these the ones around Nagymágocs are to be highlighted. The connect through their neighboring to Kiskunfélegyháza to the gardens in Coltău and to the history of 1848, and thus to the century of English gardens in Hungary.
Keywords: cross country landscape, historic gardens, conservation, database, English garden.
ASADUZZAMAN, MD. and SADAT, N. - Tree species selection for street planting in the Central Business District of Rajshahi
As flora is a significant part of the urban street system, careful consideration and attention should be given to tree species selection and plantation on an urban pedestrian walkway. This paper aims at analyzing the physical attributes of trees that grow naturally in Rajshahi and provides a basis for selecting suitable tree species for street planting in the Central Business District (CBD) of Rajshahi. Analytical method is used for selecting tree species by applying social factors of Miller’s tree species selection model (1997) and street planting guidelines used in San Francisco, USA from an ergonomic and functional point of view as there is no proper regulation for street planting in Rajshahi. A questionnaire survey is also conducted in order to assess the public opinion regarding street trees from an aesthetic point of view. Future considerations for selecting tree species for street planting based on the findings can reduce problems at the neighborhood scale and thus increase the quality of urban life by enhancing the walking environment.
Keywords: Landscape Architecture, Street Planting, Attributes, Pedestrian, Walking Environment, Rajshahi.
KAUKO, T. - Sustainable Spatial Development and Change in Planning
Urban planning is facing conceptual challenges caused by increased uncertainty, diversity and incommensurability of goals. Therefore, an approach based on seemingly rational linear models of delivery is long overdue. This article first examines the sustainability agenda to the extent it can serve as an overall framework for different approaches to spatial development and planning. After that, the concepts diversity, polycentricity and resilience are examined with similar aim. The reviewed interdisciplinary literature suggests that sustainability is a concept that works at a general level, but the three other concepts require considerable detail. Thus, when focusing on these concepts, a bottom-up approach is preferred to a top-down one. Here it can be noted that the most detailed issues can only be reached when they result from private investment activity aimed at incremental improvement and conversion at site-level. If this is not a feasible, an alternative route to successful planning practice would be to direct attention to more pressing current urban social problems.
Keywords: Diversity, Planning, Polycentricity, Resilience, Sustainability
WANGZOM, D. - Sustainability of Urban Renewal Projects: Lessons from Bhaktapur and Bandipur Projects
Urban renewal is an intervention to reverse the trend of decay and decline in a city or a town. The concept is fairly new in the developing world.This paper presents the different debates and experiences of urban renewal and seek to find out the factors in urban renewal project that leads to its sustainability through case studies of Bhaktapur Development and Bandipur projects from Nepal. The findings confirm the importance of public participation in plan preparation and implementation, meetings and discussions among stakeholders and awareness campaign for the project to be successful and sustainable. A realistic project that is based on local needs and situation lead to project success.
Keywords: Urban renewal, sustainability, public participation, implementation.